Technology Overview

Femtonics Chemistry designs and develops new caged neurotransmitters for frontier neuroscience research. The two main products are a glutamate derivative and a GABA (gamma-amino-butyric acid) derivative. These dinitro-indoline-masked forms of glutamate and GABA release the bioactive forms of the two neurotransmitters more rapidly than other, commercially available versions of these compounds. They were developed to have high-quantum yield, requiring less irradiation for release, so their effective concentrations are lower than that of other caging scaffolds. DNI-Glu and iDMPO-DNI-GABA are compounds developed in-house, only available from Femtonics; in addition, iDMPO-DNI-GABA is the only commercially available caged GABA compound.


  • Name: 4-methoxy-5,7-dinitroindolinyl-N-methyl-D-aspartate trifluoroacetate
  • Molecular formula: C16H17N4O10F3
  • MW: 482.32 Da
  • Standard packaging size: 6 mg (custom packaging available 14 mg or 20 mg )


    • Rapidly and efficiently releases NMDA (N-methyl-D-Asp) neurotransmitter (selective NMDAR agonist), by the effect of one (360 nm) or two photon (720 nm) irradiation
    • Exists as trifluoroacetic acid salted form, ensuring good solubility, stability and low hygroscopicity of the product
    • Highly resistant to hydrolysis at neutral pH
    • Higher quantum yield (ca. 7 times, than MNI-NMDA)
    • Releases NMDA neurotransmitter more rapidly by the effect of two photon irradiation (720 nm) than MNI-NMDA