Technology Overview

Femtonics Chemistry designs and develops new caged neurotransmitters for frontier neuroscience research. The two main products are a glutamate derivative and a GABA (gamma-amino-butyric acid) derivative. These dinitro-indoline-masked forms of glutamate and GABA release the bioactive forms of the two neurotransmitters more rapidly than other, commercially available versions of these compounds. They were developed to have high-quantum yield, requiring less irradiation for release, so their effective concentrations are lower than that of other caging scaffolds. DNI-Glu and iDMPO-DNI-GABA are compounds developed in-house, only available from Femtonics; in addition, iDMPO-DNI-GABA is the only commercially available caged GABA compound.


  • Name: 2-amino-1-(4-methoxy-5,7-dinitroindolin-1-yl)ethan-1-one trifluoroacetate
  • Molecular formula: C13H13N4O8F3
  • MW: 410.24 Da
  • Standard packaging size: 12,5 mg (custom packaging available 6 mg -20 mg)


    • Rapidly and efficiently releases Gly (Glycine) neurotransmitter, by the effect of one (360 nm) or two photon (720 nm) irradiation
    • Glycine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter on GlyR in the CNS, especially in the spinal cord, brainstem, and retina, via ionotropic receptors, causing an Inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP)
    • Exists as trifluoroacetic acid salted form, ensuring good solubility, stability and low hygroscopicity of the product
    • Highly resistant to hydrolysis at neutral pH
    • High quantum yield


Molecular structure and function of the glycine receptor chloride channel.
Lynch, J. W., Physiological Reviews (2004)