Technology Overview

This dinitro-indoline-masked form of glutamate releases the bioactive glutamate more rapidly than any other commercially available compound. It was developed for high-quantum yield requiring less irradiation for release, so its effective concentration is lower than other caging scaffolds. The caged compound exists as trifluoroacetic acid salted form (DNI-Glu*TFA) ensuring good solubility, stability and low hygroscopicity. DNI-Glu is a compound developed in-house, only available from Femtonics.

See more at Uncaging.


  • Photostimulation with two-photon laser
  • High quantum-yield
  • Effective at low concentration
  • Seven-fold higher quantum yield than any other caged form
  • Stable and soluble
  • Primarily used for in vitro experiments


    • High excitatory postsynaptic potential and high Ca2+ transient as a response to the photo release
    • Less illumination is sufficient to elicit the same response as with alternative compounds
    • Elicits large transients or regenerative activity
    • Applicable for receptor mapping experiments



Endocannabinoid Signaling Mediates Local Dendritic Coordination between Excitatory and Inhibitory Synapses.
Hai Yin Hu, Dennis L.H. Kruijssen, Cátia P. Frias, Balázs Rózsa, Casper C. Hoogenraad, Cell Reports (2019)

A compact holographic projector module for high-resolution 3D multi-site two-photon photostimulation.
Mary Ann Go, Max Mueller, Michael Lawrence Castañares, Veronica Egger, Vincent R. Daria, PLOS One (2019)

Coincidence Detection within the Excitable Rat Olfactory Bulb Granule Cell Spines.
S. Sara Aghvami, Max Müller, Babak N. Araabi and Veronica Egger, J. Neurosci. (2019)

Voltage Gated Calcium Channel Activation by Backpropagating Action Potentials Downregulates NMDAR Function
Anne-Kathrin Theis, Balázs Rózsa, Gergely Katona, Dietmar Schmitz and Friedrich W. Johenning, Front. Cell. Neurosci. (2018)

High efficiency two-photon uncaging coupled by the correction of spontaneous hydrolysis.
Dénes Pálfi, Balázs Chiovini, Gergely Szalay, Attila Kaszás, Gergely F. Turi, Gergely Katona, Péter Ábrányi-Balogh, Milán Szőri, Attila Potor, Orsolya Frigyesi, Csilla Lukácsné Haveland, Zoltán Szadai, Miklós Madarász, Anikó Vasanits-Zsigrai, Ibolya Molnár-Perl, Béla Viskolcz, Imre G. Csizmadia, Zoltán Mucsi and Balázs Rózsa, Org. Biomol. Chem. (2018)

Super-Resolution Imaging of the Extracellular Space in Living Brain Tissue
Jan Tønnesen, V.V.G. Krishna Inavalli, U. Valentin Nägerl, Cell (2018)

Imaging membrane potential changes from dendritic spines using computer-generated holography.
Dimitrii Tanese, Ju-Yun Weng, Valeria Zampini, Vincent de-Sars, Marco Canepari, Balazs J. Rozsa, Valentina Emiliani, Dejan Zecevic, Neurophotonics (2017)

Cell-type–specific inhibition of the dendritic plateau potential in striatal spiny projection neurons.
Kai Du, Yu-Wei Wu, Robert Lindroos, Yu Liu, Balázs Rózsa, Gergely Katona, Jun B. Ding, and Jeanette Hellgren Kotaleski, PNAS (2017)

Electrical behaviour of dendritic spines as revealed by voltage imaging.
Marko A. Popovic, Nicholas Carnevale, Balazs Rozsa; Dejan Zecevic, Nature Communications (2015)

Local Postsynaptic Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Activation in Dendritic Spines of Olfactory Bulb Granule Cells.
Wolfgang G. Bywalez, Dinu Patirniche, Vanessa Rupprecht, Martin Stemmler, Andreas;V.M. Herz, Denes Palfi, Balazs Rozsa, Veronica Egger, Neuron (2015)

Quantitation of various indolinyl caged glutamates as their o-phthalaldehyde derivatives by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem spectroscopic detections: derivatization, stoichiometry and stability studies.
Vasanits-Zsigrai A, Majercsik O, Toth G, Csampai A, Haveland-Lukacs C, Palfi D, Szadai Z, Rozsa B, Molnar-Perl I, J Chromatogr A. (2015)

Dendritic spikes induce ripples in parvalbumin interneurons during hippocampal sharp waves.
B Chiovini, G F Turi, G Katona, A Kaszas, D Palfi, P Maak, G Szalay, M F Szabo, Z Szadai, Sz Kali and B Rozsa, Neuron (2014)